Nuclear fuel cycle represents the series of industrial processes of nuclear fuel from mining to reprocessing. The thorium fuel cycle has several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle, including thorium's greater abundance, superior physical and nuclear properties, reduced plutonium and actinide production, and better resistance to nuclear weapons proliferation when used in a traditional light water reactor though not in a molten salt reactor. Read the report. 1) Uranium Enrichment. Tools to customize searches, view specific data sets, study detailed documentation, and access time-series data. Long-term storage and final disposal without reprocessing. For more information, see page on Radioactive Waste Management. 27.6 tonnes containing 280 kg transuranics (mainly plutonium), 26 t uranium oxide (<1.0% U-235), 1 tonne fission products. Natural uranium mined from the earth, can be used in certain types of nuclear reactors, but it is normally enriched to produce nuclear fuel. The next step in the nuclear fuel cycle is to convert yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride (UF6) gas at a converter facility. Maps, tools, and resources related to energy disruptions and infrastructure. Special precautions, consisting primarily of increased ventilation, are required in underground mines to protect against airborne radiation exposure. Retrouvez Nuclear Fuel Cycle Science and Engineering et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. As they spin, the physical properties of molecules, specifically the 1% mass difference between the two uranium isotopes, cause them to separate. About 3% of the used fuel comprises waste products and the remaining 1% is plutonium (Pu) produced while the fuel was in the reactor. Only 0.7% of natural uranium is 'fissile', or capable of undergoing fission, the process by which energy is produced in a nuclear reactor. Fuel burn-up is measured in gigawatt-days (thermal) per tonne and its potential is proportional to the level of enrichment. Weapons-grade plutonium may also be used to make mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for use in ordinary reactors or in special reactors designed to 'burn' it for electricity. Energy use in homes, commercial buildings, manufacturing, and transportation. Source: Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission, France (public domain). The reactor core is a cylindrical arrangement of the fuel bundles that is about 12 feet in diameter and 14 feet tall and encased in a steel pressure vessel with walls that are several inches thick. After uranium has spent about three years in a reactor to produce electricity, the used fuel may undergo a further series of steps including temporary storage, reprocessing, and recycling before the waste produced is disposed. For more information, see page on Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste. Waste from the nuclear fuel cycle is categorised as high-, medium- or low-level based on the amount of radiation that it emits. The reactor core has essentially no moving parts except for a small number of control rods that are inserted to regulate the nuclear fission reaction. Uranium concentrate is separated from uranium ore at uranium mills or from a slurry at in-situ leaching facilities. Reprocessing to recover and recycle the usable portion of it. As was written, the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle involves managing the spent fuel after irradiation. In the United States, uranium is processed in different chemical and physical forms to create nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Threat Initiative and the CSIS Proliferation Prevention Program launched the New Approaches to the Fuel Cycle (NAFC) project to develop an integrated approach to nuclear supply and demand that would improve the robustness of the nonproliferation regime without dampening the sustainability of nuclear energy. The glass is then poured into stainless steel canisters, each holding 400 kg of glass. Despite the name, the concentrated uranium product is typically a black or brown substance called yellowcake (U3O8). The nuclear fuel cycle represents how the nuclear fuel progresses from creation to disposal. Volumes horaires. The commercial article “Yellow… Today, most U.S. uranium is produced using a solution mining technique commonly called in-situ-leach (ISL) or in-situ-recovery (ISR). Current U.S. nuclear reactor designs require a stronger concentration (enrichment) of the U-235 isotope to operate efficiently. A number of countries are carrying out studies to determine the optimum approach to the disposal of used fuel and waste from reprocessing. The powder is then compressed and formed into small ceramic fuel pellets. [Back], © 2016-2020 World Nuclear Association, registered in England and Wales, number 01215741. Fuel Cycle Analysis. Whilst there is a clear incentive for interim storage, used fuel must ultimately either be reprocessed in order to recycle most of it, or prepared for permanent disposal. It is then recovered from solution and precipitated as uranium oxide (U3O8) concentrate. Used fuel still contains about 96% of its original uranium, of which the fissionable U-235 content has been reduced to less than 1%. The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages. After the uranium ore is extracted from an open pit or underground mine, it is refined into uranium concentrate at a uranium mill. Comprehensive data summaries, comparisons, analysis, and projections integrated across all energy sources. The process is a lengthy and labor-intensive one requiring many steps. The goal of Cyclus is to enable a broad spectrum of fuel cycle simulation while providing a low barrier to entry for new users and agent developers. As in fossil-fuel burning electricity generating plants, the heat is used to produce steam to drive a turbine and an electric generator. So, you might survey the land, find uranium (orthorium) ore, dig it up, convert it to a gas so that you can enrich it, enrich it, convert it to asolid fuel form, and then fabricate it into fuel assemblies. Used fuel will typically have about 1.0% U-235 and 0.6% fissile plutonium (almost 1% Pu total), with around 95% U-238.f The balance, about 3%, is fission products and minor actinides. Mining: Just like oil and coal, the raw material for nuclear fuel – uranium – comes from beneath the Earth’s surface. Thesetypically fall into three broad categories. State energy information, including overviews, rankings, data, and analyses. Supply: The point of departure of nuclear energy utilization is the supply of nuclear reactors with uranium. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, Updated EIA survey provides data on spent nuclear fuel in the United States, Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing: U.S. Policy Development, Electricity generation, capacity, and sales. This waste comes from a number of sources and includes: After reprocessing, the liquid high-level waste can be calcined (heated strongly) to produce a dry powder, which is incorporated into borosilicate (Pyrex) glass to immobilise it. The decision as to which mining method to use for a particular deposit is governed by the nature of the orebody, and safety and economic considerations. High-level waste, which is waste containing the highly-radioactive fission products separated in reprocessing, and in many countries, the used fuel itself. A+ Augmenter la taille du texte A-Réduire la taille du texte Imprimer le document Envoyer cette page par mail Partagez cet article Facebook Twitter Linked In. 192 tonnes of uranium oxide concentrate (which contains 163 tonnes of uranium), 8760 million kWh (8.76 TWh) of electricity at 100% output, hence 18.6 tonnes of natural U per TWh, 19.1 tonnes containing 200 kg transuranics (mainly plutonium), 18.3 t uranium oxide (<1.0% U-235), <0.6 t fission products. a. U-238 is fissionable in fast neutron reactors, which are likely to be in wide use by mid-century. It also describes the series of industrial activities involved in the generation of electricity or energy production from nuclear power, thus resembling the upstream, midstream, and … If spent fuel is not reproces… In order for a nuclear energy plant to use uranium as fuel, the element must undergo a careful manufacturing process. About 200 tonnes is required to keep a large (1000 MWe) nuclear power reactor generating electricity for one year. An increasing proportion of the world's uranium now comes from in situ leach (ISL) mining, where oxygenated groundwater is circulated through a very porous orebody to dissolve the uranium oxide and bring it to the surface. There are a number of areas around the world where the concentration of uranium in the ground is sufficiently high that extraction of it for use as nuclear fuel is economically feasible. Typically, some 44 million kilowatt-hours of electricity are produced from one tonne of natural uranium. Nuclear power generation in France supports a more advanced nuclear fuel cycle, which results in recycling of some of the fission byproducts. 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