Global warming is the hottest issue since the erratic climate change happen all over the world. Hoang, M. H., et al.  The main drivers of deforestation in relation to agriculture are population growth and the increased pressures for agricultural expansion. Loss and degradation of forest has a direct impact on the Earth's diverse flora and fauna and, therefore, on climate change because they are the best defense against CO2 buildup in the atmosphere. Further effects of deforestation include soil erosion and coastal flooding. In recent times, the ill effects of deforestation have come to light in the form of various environmental catastrophes taking place all over the world, such as tsunamis, hurricanes and earthquakes.  This method is not sustainable because the plots can only be tilled for 2–3 years, where after farmers will move to a different plot and repeat the process.  These distinctions are important in light of Silverio's research findings that not all deforestation affects the environment and climate in the same way. ", "Tropical Deforestation : Feature Articles", "Deforestation of sandy soils a greater threat to climate change", "Effects of Deforestation | The Pachamama Alliance", "AR4 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis — IPCC", "Climate change mitigation: A spatial analysis of global land suitability for clean development mechanism afforestation and reforestation", "To what extent could planting trees help solve climate change? Additionally, cutting down trees plays a role in a positive feedback loop centered around climate change on a much larger scale, as studies are finding..  This can help visualize the extent of the forest. It also increases the occurrence of floods, landslides, drought, erosion, and desertification as well as disruption of the water cycles and loss of biodiversity. Between 2001 and 2015 only 27 +/- 5% of all forest disturbances globally were for agricultural expansion. Moreover, agricultural expansion plays a role in coupled systems that cause climatic effects that reach far beyond agricultural croplands.  One of the key elements of The Bali Action Plan involves a concerted effort by the member countries of The Kyoto Protocol to enact and create policy approaches that incentivize emissions reduction caused by deforestation and forest degradation in the developing world. The expansion of the palm oil industry and increased demand has resulted in greater deforestation in tropical climatic regions.  The carbon emitted from the process of converting timber to wood products accounts for 15% of the carbon emissions in the environment. Food production is only one driver.  It is a direct result of The Kyoto Protocol of December 1997. The water level of the rivers increases suddenly, causing floods.  Specifically, forests hold roughly 471 billion tons of the total carbon emissions in our world. Often, this can involve suppliers working with companies in their own supply chains, triggering off a cascade effect of positive action.  The increase of atmospheric carbon is not the only consequence of deforestation, changes in soil properties could turn the soil itself into a carbon contributor. Global models and national greenhouse gas inventories give similar results for deforestation emissions. When it rains, trees absorb and store a large amount of water with the help of their roots. The loss is more severe in so called primary forests, which are forests that have yet been untouched by humans.  The process is usually encouraged by governments because they want it to lead to a decrease in carbon dioxide and because it increases the aesthetics of the area. The acceleration of deforestation affects humans in many other categories. Land Use Policy, vol 31, 6 Sept. 2011, pp. The method does not leave land for continuous agricultural production, but instead cuts and burns small plots of forest land which are then converted into agricultural zones. Malhi, Y., et al. Not to mention, how great a contributing factor deforestation is to air and water pollution as well as soil erosion. The biggest uses of land that was once forested are for farming and ranching.  According to Greenpeace, a non-governmental global environmental organization, the cattle industry is responsible for a significant amount of methane emissions since 60% of all mammals on earth are livestock cows.  Later, when the missions were closed and the priests and soldiers abandoned the area but leaving the cattle behind, the task was taken up by private citizens. This results in an increase in the absorption of light energy from the sun in the form of heat, enhancing global warming. Forests are often planted to protect against natural disasters. The relatively small size of the plots allowed for no net input of CO2 to be released. A degraded forest therefore is unable to store greater amounts of Carbon (C), thus adding to Climate Change. Deforestation comes in many forms: wildfire, agricultural clearcutting, livestock ranching, and logging for timber, among others.  Similar to the other methods of forestation, reforestation can be very effective because a single tree can absorb as much as 22 kilograms (48 lb) of carbon dioxide per year and can sequester 0.91 tonnes (1 short ton) of carbon dioxide by the time it reaches 40 years old.  With the increased pressure to expand agricultural production this method has been used on a much larger scale then traditional subsistence farming.  In order to combat Carbon (C) emissions caused by deforestation and forest degradation actions that sequester and store this Carbon must be taken. It is no coincidence that Brazil has recently become the world's largest beef exporter at the same time that the Amazon rainforest is being clear cut.. The researchers hope that their results “can be replicated and directly contribute to reducing carbon emissions globally.”.  This change in climate has drastic ecological and global impacts including increases in severity and frequency of fires, and disruption in the pollination process that will likely spread beyond the area of deforestation.. Researchers Offiong and Ita question whether increased food production through cropland expansion would be possible without resulting in greater climatic impacts. Deforestation destroys the habitat of many animals, leading to their death. Together they contain approximately 20% of the earth's total flora, or roughly 50,000 separate species. , Deforestation, particularly in large swaths of the Amazon, where nearly 20% of the rainforest has been clear cut, has climactic effects and effects on water sources as well as on the soil. Habitat loss is common when deforestation happens because not only are the trees being cut down, but the land trees previously inhibited suffer extreme soil erosion due to lack of protection from the tree coverage. In addition, the increasing demand for low-cost timber products only supports the lumber company to continue logging. Between August 2003 and 2004, the deforestation rate for the Amazon, the world’s largest tropical forest, was the second highest ever recorded. However, studies have shown that non-tropical forests will also see consequences from deforestation as new pressures from climate change warms areas that were once uninhabitable or too frigid to be arable.  Deforestation sends a shock wave through the natural world, resulting in many previously unforeseen complications, This shows how much of an impact humans can have on themselves by continuing to take down forested land.  Among the environmental initiatives highlighted were forest management, resource conservation, and mitigating climate change.  Its initial target was the planting of one billion trees in 2007. The Japanese temperate rainforest is scattered throughout the Japanese archipelago and is home to many endemic species that are not naturally found anywhere else. Modern medicine is another thing affected by deforestation because several medicines are derived from plants found in these areas. Growing forests are a carbon sink with additional potential to mitigate the effects of climate change. 1. In December 2011, after more than 12 billion trees had been planted, UNEP formally handed management of the program over to the not-for-profit Plant-for-the-Planet initiative, based in Munich, Germany. Deforestation is the clearing, or cutting down, of forests. While the geographic zone houses one quarter of the world's forests it has the highest rates of deforestation. The loss of tree cover has a number of negative effects on the planet. As of 2019 , deforestation is responsible fo…  Forests are being converted to plantations for coffee, tea, palm oil, rice, rubber, and various other popular products. Climate change, policy responses, and redistributed forests in the twenty-first century", "Carbon Dioxide Fertilization Greening Earth, Study Finds. This subject is usually discussed when looking at the effects it has on the rainforest biome, but it can also occur anywhere in the world when a forest is artificially transformed for another purpose. It is displacing native tribes; it is eliminating one of the largest oxygen providers and carbon sinks in the world; and it can even lead to sickness and disease.  The estimated amount of total land mass used by agriculture is around 38%.  Local community economies are affected by this because they depend on these resources to drive their local markets and feed their families. Deforestation & the Effects It Has on a Global Scale. ", https://www.researchgate.net/publication/313011619_Agroforestry-_A_Sustainable_Solution_to_Address_Climate_Change_Challenges, "Cattle ranching in the Amazon rainforest", "Growth of Brazil's Beef Industry Fueling Fires Destroying Amazon Rainforest", "Deforestation and avian infectious diseases", "Where Deforestation Leads to Urbanization: How Resource Extraction Is Leading to Urban Growth in the Brazilian Amazon", "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change", "Commit to Action - Join the Billion Tree Campaign! ", Human activity such as deforestation for livestock grazing and fuel wood has led to forest degradation and over extraction resulting in ecosystem biodiversity loss. , The largest cause of deforestation and acute degradation is agriculture. – In the Brazilian Amazon it is estimated that 60-80 pe… Deforestation is often described as the changing of land from forested to non-forested by means both natural and unnatural. Deforestation in Nepal has always been a serious issue, which has a severe effect on the lives of poor people. While it is easy to understand the driving causes of deforestation, it can be harder to recognize and explain the impacts. This page was last changed on 13 November 2020, at 14:04. , Studies conducted in the Ecuadorian Amazon by Kovacic and Salazar found that deforestation and agricultural expansion not only cause environmental degradation but they do not guarantee the expected economic benefit for the small scale farmers nor for the national economies of governments who are proposing agricultural expansion programs.  Most of the focus of wide-scale reforestation efforts have been focused on tropical climate areas like some parts of Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. , Forests are nature's atmospheric carbon sink; plants take in atmospheric carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) and convert the carbon into sugars and plant materials through the process of photosynthesis. Agriculture: People living near the rainforests sometimes cut down the trees in order to create farms for the cultivation of crops.  The top soil oftentimes erodes after forests are cleared which leads to sediment increase in rivers and streams. Examples of Illegal Logging Rates in Timber Producing Countries – In Indonesia it is estimated that up to 90 percent of logging is illegal. As the population grows, people need to remove more trees. According to Kovacic and Salazar, there is not an equal exchange between agricultural expansion and economic gains as touted by both governments and large scale agricultural production companies.  In small local plots sustainability is not an issue because of longer fallow periods and lesser overall deforestation. It is expected that biofuel demands are to surpass the demand for edible palm oil production. 319, no. Land use changes, especially in the form of deforestation, are the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions, after fossil fuel combustion. Deforestation leads to land erosion because the trees maintain the surface of the mountains. Effects of Deforestation on Biodiversity. ANSWER: Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.  In principle, the benefits for the local community involvement in the management and protection of their forests would be to provide employment and to supplement income from both the wage labor and additional agriculture which would then strength the entire local economy while improving environmental conditions and mitigating climate change.  As of 2019[update], deforestation is responsible for about 11% of global greenhouse gas emissions. It is the spread of arid areas caused by a variety of factors, such as climate change (particularly the current global warming) and overexploitation of soil as a result of human activity. The Amazon Basin corresponds to two fifths of South America's territory.  As a consequence of reduced evapotranspiration, precipitation is also reduced. , In addition to land usage for deforested land being used for plant-based food production it is also fused or also animal-based food production. Slash-and-burn agriculture accounts for about 30% of all global arable land. The types of drivers vary greatly depending on the region in which they take place. In fact, tropical rainforests are believed to be the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. 169–172., doi:10.1126/science.1146961. This is called the enhanced greenhouse effect and causes climate change.  Unfortunately, since forests are often cleared by fire such as in slash and burn agriculture, the combustion process of wood release huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  Fishbone is in reference to the visual aesthetic of the scarred land and how it branches off from the roadside in straight lines.  These newer areas are already home to many other species, this combination of species may result in inter-species illness, and may be transmitted to humans. ", "UNEP Billion Tree Campaign Hands Over to the Young People of the Plant-for-the-Planet Foundation", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Deforestation_and_climate_change&oldid=994369091, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing cleanup from August 2020, Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from August 2020, Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from August 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 10:45. Effects of Deforestation on Climate With so many hundreds of thousands of square miles of forest being cut down each and every year (approximately 46 – 58 thousand), many of the biggest carbon sinks in the world are being shrunk drastically. , Recognition of the negative impacts of deforestation and of the overwhelming evidence of global warming has led to the development of international policy surrounding the conservation of forests.  A reduction in area of any habitat, but particularly in forest habitat along with climatic change, enables species invasion and the possibility of biotic homogenization as stronger invasive species can take over weaker species in a fragile ecosystem. Ecological zones will shift by approximately 160 km per 1 degree Celsius. Deforestation is one of the significant cause of global warming due to objects that produce carbon substances to cause the earth to getting hotter.  Loss of these resources means a loss of profit to local communities who depend on these natural entities for profit.  In addition, agroforestry helps to preserve and protect natural resources such as controlling soil erosions, creating habitat for the wildlife, and managing animal waste. As a result, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could significantly decrease.  They work on projects focused on planting trees around campuses, low-income communities, and communities that have been affected by natural disasters among other places. Environmental factor#Socioeconomic Drivers. The word is normally used to describe the actions of humans in removing forests from the planet, rather than destruction caused by such natural events as hurricanes. It is the reestablishment of forest cover either naturally or artificially. From these satellite images, specialists can create false-color composites to differentiate forest cover from bare ground and soil. Most impacts are complex and interrelated, and continuously drive the destructive cycle of deforestation. 5860, 11 Jan. 2008, pp. There are many benefits to agroforestry such as increasing farm profitability. This style of deforestation has proven to be fast moving and efficient while tearing apart the land that humans, plants, and animals all inhabit. Burning or cutting down trees reverses the effects of carbon sequestration and releases greenhouse gases (including carbon dioxide) into the atmosphere. At a global level, deforestation is also known to have an effect on carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere through; Slash and Burn Practices: Used primarily to create agricultural land, it involves the logging of forests and burning debris afterwards.  Furthermore, soils that are rich in organic decay matter are more susceptible to fire, especially during long droughts. As the development of the country's caused a decline in forest cover, a reduction in biodiversity was seen in those areas. 1. The main area of concern of deforestation is in tropical rain forests since they are home to the majority of the planet's biodiversity. Restoring trees in deforested places is called reforesting. Global models and national greenhouse gas inventories give similar results for deforestation emissions.  Humans will also be impacted by loss of biodiversity as food, energy, and other ‘ecosystem goods and services’ patterns are disrupted. And we’re not including commercially grown trees and plantations. With the use of MODIS satellites, specialists can stack satellite images of the given area from multiple dates to see if there is any regression of the forest to help visualize deforestation better. Cattaneo, Andrea (2002) Balancing Agricultural Development and Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, Int Food Policy Res Inst IFPRI, 146 pages ISBN 0-89629-130-8 Heil, Gerrit W., Bart Muys and Karin Hansen (2007) Environmental Effects of Afforestation in North-Western Europe , Springer, 320 pages ISBN 1 …  In recent history, this process has been accelerated and amplified by humans in many different ways. That’s every two seconds, every single day. Their methods included “benefit-distribution systems” and dividends for ecosystem services. Palm oil serves two purposes which are highly in demand for anthropogenic use: edible use and biofuel use. Deforestation is when forests are destroyed by cutting trees (logging) and not replanting them. The Bali Action Plan was developed in December 2007 in Bali, Indonesia. Deforestation is a primary contributor to climate change. Some of the effects of climate change, such as more wildfires, may increase deforestation. Based on an analysis of land use pattern maps and a road map an estimated 9.8 million hectares of forests were lost in the Philippines from 1934 to 1988. Desertification is a type of land degradation in drylands in which biological productivity is lost due to natural processes or induced by human activities whereby fertile areas become increasingly arid. Therefore, implementing a CBFM system can provide rural development while mitigating climate change and sustaining biodiversity within the region. They also cut trees for firewood and lumber and to make room for cities. , GIS and remote sensing methods can be used to visualize deforestation in a given area.  Examples of large forests that have a significant impact on the balance of carbon include the Amazonian and the Central African rainforests. Most deforestation also occurs in tropical regions. Consequences of deforestation. Deforestation poses a grave threat to this biodiversity. In the time it takes to say ‘deforestation’, another chunk of forest the size of a football pitch is destroyed. Afforestation is the planting of trees where there was no previous tree coverage. Land has other uses besides growing trees. "Benefit distribution across scales to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in Vietnam." Deforestation is the "permanent removal of standing forests," as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency defines it. Among other drivers were urbanization, forest fires, logging, and for shifting agriculture practices. , The Amazon Fund is aimed at raising donations for non-reimbursable investments in efforts to prevent, monitor and combat deforestation, as well as to promote the preservation and sustainable use of forests in the Amazon Biome, under the terms of Decree N.º 6,527, dated August 1, 2008. This is notable because loss of forest habitats puts biodiversity in jeopardy.  Land use changes, especially in the form of deforestation, are the second largest anthropogenic source of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions, after fossil fuel combustion. The ASEAN Declaration on Environmental Sustainability and the “ASEAN Declaration on the 13th Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCC and the 3rd Session of the CMP to the Kyoto Protocol” were signed by the ASEAN countries, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Animal-based food production (whether for meat, dairy, or other products) impacts the land in a different way. In addition to their previously mentioned roles, trees also function to retain water and topsoil, which provides the rich nutrients to sustain additional forest life.  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